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The Motorola ” sixty-eight-oh-twenty “, ” sixty-eight-oh-two-oh ” or ” six-eight-oh-two-oh ” is a bit microprocessor from Motorolareleased in It is the successor to the Motorola and is succeeded by the Motorola A lower cost version was also made available, known as the 68EC In keeping with naming practices common to Motorola designs, the is usually referred to as the “”, pronounced “oh-two-oh” or “oh-twenty”.
The had bit internal and external data and address buses, compared to the early x0 models with bit data and bit address buses. The ‘s ALU was also natively bit, so could perform bit operations in one clock, whereas the took two clocks minimum due to its bit ALU. Newer packaging methods allowed the ‘ to feature more external pins without the large size that the earlier dual in-line package method required. The 68EC lowered cost through a bit address bus. The added many improvements over the including a bit arithmetic logic unit ALUbit external data and address buses, extra instructions and additional addressing modes.
The and had a proper three-stage pipeline.
Though the had a “loop mode”, which sped loops through what was effectively a tiny instruction cache, it held only two short instructions and was thus little used. The replaced this with a proper instruction cache of bytes, the first 68k series processor to feature true on-chip cache memory. The previous and processors could only access word bit and long word bit data in memory if it were word-aligned located at an even address.
The had no alignment restrictions on data access. Naturally, unaligned accesses were slower than aligned accesses because they required an extra memory access. The has a coprocessor interface supporting up to eight coprocessors. The main CPU recognizes “F-line” instructions with the four most significant opcode bits all oneand uses special bus cycles to interact with a coprocessor to execute these instructions.
MC Datasheet(PDF) – Motorola, Inc
The coprocessor interface is asynchronous, so it is possible to run the coprocessors at a different clock rate than the CPU. Multiprocessing support was 6802 externally by the use of a RMC pin  to indicate an indivisible read-modify-write cycle in progress. All other processors had to hold off memory accesses until the cycle was complete.
In a multiprocessor system, coprocessors could not be shared between CPUs. To avoid problems with returns from coprocessor, bus error, and address error exceptions, it was generally necessary in a multiprocessor system for all CPUs to be the same model, and for all FPUs to be the same model as well.
While the had ‘supervisor mode’, it did not meet the Popek and Goldberg virtualization requirements due to the single instruction ‘MOVE from SR’ being unprivileged but sensitive. Under the and later, this was made privileged, to better support virtualization software. The new addressing modes added scaled indexing and another level of indirection to many of the pre-existing modes, and added quite a bit of flexibility to various indexing modes and operations.
Though it was not intended, these new modes made the very suitable for page printing; most laser printers in the early s had a 68EC at their core. The had a small byte direct-mapped instruction cache, arranged as 64 four-byte entries. Although small, it still made datashheet significant difference in the performance of many applications.
MC Datasheet pdf – MICROPROCESSORS USERS MANUAL – Motorola
The resulting decrease in bus traffic was particularly important in systems relying heavily on DMA. The UX shipped with Amiga Unix, requiring an ‘ or ‘ processor. The HP, and also use thetogether with xatasheet math coprocessor. It is also the processor used on board TGV trains to decode signalling information which is sent to the trains through the rails.
It is further being used in the flight control and radar systems of the Eurofighter Typhoon combat aircraft. The Nortel Networks DMS telephone central office switch also used the as the first microprocessor of the SuperNode computing core.
For more information datssheet the instructions and architecture see Motorola The 68EC is a lower cost version of the Motorola It also found use in laser printers. InRochester Electronics has re-established manufacturing capability for the microprocessor and it is still available today. This article is based on material taken from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing prior to 1 November and incorporated under the “relicensing” terms of the GFDLversion 1. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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