chapters English Lexicology by Antrushina Affixation The process of affixation consists in coining a new word by add-ing an affix or several. taking the course of English lexicology and fully meets the requirements of the Lexicology studies various lexical units: morphemes, words, variable word-. English Lexicology for Students and All Hello, my lexicology 3-rd year students! Please follow the link Books. Antrushina-English lexicology.
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The extralinguistic factors influencing usage and development of language constitute one of the critical problems of linguistics. They are anhrushina with in sociolinguistics and linguostylistics.
Sociolinguistics is interested in variations in language depending on social, educational, sex, age in social evaluation of speech habits in correlation of linguistic facts with the life and attitudes of the speaking community. Lingustylistics studies the correlation of speech situation and linguistic means used by speakers and different functional styles of speech and language. On various occasions a speaker makes use of different combinations open him in the vocabulary, parts of the words he uses will be independent of the sphere of communication.
Лексикология английского языка English Lexicology by G.B. Antrushina Information
There are words equally fit to be used in a lecture, a poem or when speaking to a child. These are said to be stylistically neutral. Stylistically coloured or marked are words suitable only on certain definite occasions in specific spheres and suggestive of specific conditions of communication. These words is divided into formal and informal also called colloquial English or in other words stylistic characteristics of words we call functional style.
The term functional style is generally accepted in modern linguistics. Arnold defines it as a system of expressive means peculiar to a specific sphere of communication. When placed in different situations, people choose different kinds of words and structures to express their thoughts.
Formal style is restricted to formal situations. In general formal words fall into two main groups: Formal vocabulary is used to cover varieties of English vocabulary that occur in books and magazines, that we hear from a lecturer, a public speaker, a radio announcer or possibly in official talk.
These types of communication are characterised as monologues addressed by one person to many, and often prepared in advance. Informal vocabulary is used in personal two-way everyday communication. It is in the form of dialogue where the speaker has the qualities of voice, gesture, the speaker has an opportunity to know whether he is understood, the listener can always interrupt him and demand additional information.
Sntrushina style is relaxed, free and easy, familiar and unpretentious. Multimedia lectures and seminars compiled by the instructor of English lexicology: Lexical units may also be classified by semantic similarity and semantic contrasts. The terms generally used to denote these two types of semantic relatedness synonymy and antonymy. Synonymy is often understood as semantic equivalence. It can exist between words and word-groups, word-groups and sentences, sentences and sentences.
Synonyms may be found in different parts lexicoloy speech and both among notional and function words. They are phonemically different words but similar in their denotational meaning. Synonyms are traditionally described as words different in sound-form but identical or similar in meaning. The principal function of synonyms is to represent the same phenomenon in different aspects, shades and variations. More often synonyms are used for stylistic purposes.
In terms of componential analysis synonyms may be defined as words with the same denotation or the antrushinq denotative component ideographic synonymsbut differing in connotations or in connotative components stylistic reference or ideographic —stylistic synonyms.
Quite number of words in antdushina sets are usually of Latin or French origin. Synonymy is still an object of controversy, one of the theoretical antrushinaa, the most controversial is the problem of criteria of synonymy.
Traditional linguistics solved this problem with the conceptual criterion and defined synonyms as words of antrusina same category of parts of speech conveying the same concept but differing either in shades of meaning or in stylistic characteristics.
In contemporary research on synonymy semantic criterion is frequently used. In terms of componential analysis synonyms may be defined as words with the same denotation, or the same denotative component, but differing in entlish or in connotative components. In modern research on synonyms the criterion of interchangeability is sometimes applied.
According to this synonyms are defined as words which are interchangeable at least in some contexts without any considerable alteration in denotational meaning. By classification system for synonyms by academician V. Vinogradov, the famous Russian scholar there are three types of synonyms:. Stylistic synonyms can also appear by means of abbreviation.
In most cases the abbreviated form belong to the colloquial style, and the full form to the neutral style, e. Among stylistic synonyms we can point out a special group of words which lexocology called euphemisms. These are words used to substitute some unpleasant or offensive words, e. All synonymic groups have a central word of this kind whose meaning is equal to the denotation common to all the synonymic group. This word is called antrshina dominant synonym.
In each group of synonyms there is a word with the most general meaning, which can substitute any word in the group. Semantically all word-groups may be classified into motivated and non-motivated. Non-motivated word groups are usually described as phraseological units. Usually the leading component of the idiom is expressed by a verb or a noun.
Together with synonymy and antonymy, phraseology represents expressive resources of vocabulary. Collins writes in his Book of English Idioms: On the other hand, oral or written speech lacking idioms antruxhina much in expressiveness, colour and emotional force. In modern linguistics, there is considerable confusion about the terminology associated with these word-groups.
Most Russian scholars use the term phraseological units which was first introduced by academician V. There are some other terms denoting more or less the same linguistic phenomenon: Free word-groups are so called not because of any absolute freedom in using them but simply because they are each time built up a new in the speech process whereas idioms are used as ready-made units with fixed and constant structures.
There are two major criteria for distinguishing between phraseological units and free word-groups. This cargo ship is carrying coal to Liverpool. Here we lexicologyy the semantic difference of the two word-groups consisting of the same essential constituents.
In the second sentence the free word-groups is used in the direct sense, the first context quite obviously has nothing antrusnina do either with coal or with transporting it, and the meaning of the whole word-group is smth entirely new and far removed from the current meanings of the constituents.
In the traditional approach, phraseological units have been defined as word-groups conveying a single concept in free word-groups each meaningful component stands for a separate concept. Most Russian scholars today accept the semantic criterion of distinguishing phraseological units from free word-groups as the major one and base their research work in the field of phraseology on the definition of a phraseological unit offered by professor A.
Koonin, the leading authority on problems of English phraseology in our country: It means that the degree of semantic change in a phraseological unit may vary completely or partially. In actual fact the semantic change may affect either the whole word-group or only of its components. Partially changed meanings are not also the same as semi-fixed or non-phraseological word-groups.
There are many scholars who regard idioms as the essence of phraseology and the major focus of interest in phraseology research. The structural criterion or structural invariability is an essential feature antrusbina phraseological units, though, some of them possess it to a lesser degree than others. This criterion finds expression in a number of restrictions.
As a rule, no word can be substituted for any meaningful component of a phraseological unit without destroying its lexicloogy, at the same time in free word-groups substitution does not present any dangers and does not lead to any serious consequences, all components can be changed; F: In the phraseological unit to carry coals to Newcastle no additional components can be introduced.
In oral speech phraseological units mostly preserve their traditional structures and resist the introduction of additional components. Students make mistakes if they use in the following phraseological unit the plural form of fault.
English Lexicology for Students and All
It is a mistake in terms of the englis invariability of phraseological units. Phraseological units are word-groups that cannot be made in the process of speech, they exist in the language as ready-made units. Phraseological units express a single notion and are used in a sentence as one part of it. Phraseological units can be classified according to the ways they are formed, according to the degree of the motivation of their meaning, according to their structure and according to their part-of-speech meaning.
Other ways of replenishing the English vocabulary Other ways of replenishing the vocabulary. Formal vocabulary learned words, fiction, poetry. Englisn neutral and stylistically coloured marked group.