Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The Dabest?. DABESTĀN-E MAḎĀHEB (School of religious doctrines), an important text of the Āḏar Kayvānī pseudo-Zoroastrian sect (see āẕar kayvān). It was written. Dabestan-e Mazaheb (Q). It is a book. edit edit. arwiki دبستان مذاهب; enwiki Dabestan-e Mazaheb; fawiki دبستان مذاهب; hiwiki दबेस्तान-ए-मजाहेब .
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The work is written in Persian, probably having been composed in about CE. This work was first printed by Nazar Ashraf in a very accurate edition in movable type at Calcutta in an offset reprint of this edition was published by Ali Asghar Mustafawi from Teheran in The distinguished Persian scholar Francis Gladwin translated the chapter on the Persians into English and published it from Calcutta in A German version by E.
Dalburg from Wurzburg was published in The chapter on the Raushanyas was translated into English by J. Leyden for the Asiatic Researchesxi, Calcutta. The critical English-language edition by David Shea and Anthony Troyer in is slightly flawed since the translators were not well-versed in much of the subject matter.
The editors, who were not certain of the identity of the author, suggest a certain Muhsin Fani and propose as his date of death. They furthermore stated that he was “of the philosophic sect of Sufis “, but the edition of the Encyclopaedia Iranica suggests that the author was most likely a Zoroastrian.
He is perceived to have been a person of great scholarship and curiosity, and extremely open-minded for the context of his time. Through the medium of the Dabistan Sarmad thus became the channel through which Jewish ideas, though with a Sufic blending, penetrated into the religious fabric of the India of his time.
Although the author spent most of life in South Asia, he regarded himself as a Persian.
However his perspective of the Hindus, and of other religions was unusually liberal. He personally met many scholars of different faiths. For example, about the Jains he writes:. He observes that while Mazzheb dress following their own custom, the dabextan-e of Iran and Turan pass themselves off as Muslims, while practicing their faith in secret:. He describes the disputations in Akbar ‘s Ibadat Khana in detail, as if he had been there:. The Mughal empire extended over parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by dabesstan-e founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the Mughal emperors were Central Xabestan-e Turco-Mongols belonging to the Timurid dynasty, who claimed direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur.
During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was briefly interrupted by the Sur Empire, the classic period of the Mughal Empire started in with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Under the rule of Akbar and his son Jahangir, the region enjoyed economic progress as well as harmony.
Akbar was a warrior who also forged alliances with several Hindu Rajput kingdoms.
Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, the reign of Shah Jahan, the fifth emperor, between and was the golden age of Mughal architecture. By the dabedtan-e century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies, during the following century Mughal power had become severely limited, and the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad.
The Dabistán : or School of manners, translated from the original Persian, with notes and illus.
He issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of and following the defeat was therefore tried by the British East India Company for treason, imprisoned and exiled to Rangoon. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected dabfstan-e heritage of his dynasty, another name was Hindustan, which was documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and which has been described as the closest to an official name for the empire.
In the west, the term Mughal was used for the emperor, and by extension, dabestwn-e use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, and it emphasised fabestan-e Mongol origins mazaeb the Timurid dynasty. The term gained currency during the 19th century, but remains disputed by Indologists, similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including Mogul and Moghul. Nevertheless, Baburs ancestors were sharply distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture, ousted from his ancestral domains in Central Asia, Babur turned to India to satisfy his ambitions.
He established himself in Kabul and then pushed steadily southward into India from Afghanistan through the Khyber Pass, Baburs forces occupied much of northern India after his victory at Panipat in The preoccupation with wars and military mazaneb, however, did not allow the new vabestan-e to consolidate the gains he had made in India, the instability of the empire became evident under his son, Humayun, who was driven out of India and into Persia by rebels.
Humayuns exile in Persia established diplomatic ties between the Safavid and Mughal Courts, and led to increasing Persian cultural influence in the Mughal Empire, the restoration of Mughal rule began after Humayuns triumphant return from Persia inbut he died from a fatal accident shortly afterwards.
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Humayuns son, Akbar, succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, through warfare and diplomacy, Akbar was able to extend the empire in all directions and controlled almost the entire Indian subcontinent north of the Godavari River.
He was the ruler of the Mughal Dynasty in India. Akbar succeeded his father, Humayun, under a regent, Bairam Khan, a strong personality and a successful general, Akbar gradually enlarged the Mughal Empire to include nearly all of the Indian Subcontinent north of the Godavari river.
His power and influence, however, extended over the country because of Mughal military, political, cultural. To unify the vast Mughal state, Akbar established a system of administration throughout his empire and adopted a policy of conciliating conquered rulers through marriage. To preserve peace and order in a religiously and culturally diverse empire, Mughal India developed a strong and stable economy, leading to commercial expansion and greater patronage of culture.
Akbar himself was a patron of art and culture, holy men of many faiths, poets, architects and artisans adorned his court from all over the world for study and discussion.
Akbars courts at Delhi, Agra, and Fatehpur Sikri became centres of the arts, letters, perso-Islamic culture began to merge and blend with indigenous Indian elements, and a distinct Indo-Persian culture emerged characterised by Mughal style arts, painting, and architecture. A simple, monotheistic cult, tolerant in outlook, it centred on Akbar as a prophet, for which he drew the ire of the ulema, many of his courtiers followed Din-i-Ilahi as their religion as well, as many believed that Akbar was a prophet.
One famous courtier who followed this religion was Birbal. Akbars reign significantly influenced the course of Indian history, during his rule, the Mughal empire tripled in size and wealth. He created a military system and instituted effective political and social reforms. By abolishing the tax on non-Muslims and appointing them to high civil and military posts, he was the first Mughal ruler to win the trust. He had Sanskrit literature translated, participated in festivals, realising that a stable empire depended on the co-operation.
Thus, the foundations for an empire under Mughal rule was laid during his reign. Akbar was succeeded as emperor by his son, Jahangir, defeated in battles at Chausa and Kannauj in —40 by the forces of Sher Shah Suri Mughal emperor Humayun fled westward to Sindh. The city was founded in by the Mughal Emperor Akbar, and served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from towhen it was abandoned. After his military victories over Chittor and Ranthambore, Akbar decided to shift his capital from Agra to a new location 23 miles west south-west and he named the city Fatehabad, with Fateh, a word of Arabic origin in Persian, meaning victorious.
It was later called Fatehpur Sikri and it is at Fatehpur Sikri that the legends of Akbar and his famed courtiers, the nine jewels or Navaratnas, were born. Fatehpur Sikri is one of the best preserved examples of Mughal architecture in India, according to contemporary historians, Akbar took a great interest in the building of Fatehpur Sikri and probably also dictated its architectural style.
Seeking to revive the splendours of Persian court ceremony made famous by his ancestor Timur, but the influences of his adopted land came through in the typically Indian embellishments. The easy availability of sandstone in the areas of Fatehpur Sikri also meant that all the buildings here were made of the red stone. The Imperial Palace complex consists of a number of independent pavilions arranged in formal geometry on a piece of level ground, a pattern derived from Arab and central Asian tent encampments.
In its entirety, the monuments at Fatehpur Sikri thus reflect the genius of Akbar in assimilating diverse regional architectural influences within a holistic style that was uniquely his own, in fact, he never returned to the city except for a brief period in The palaces were occupied by the Marathas after their conquest of Delhi, then transferred to the British army, which used the fortified complex as a headquarters and barracks. Because the palace area has been in continuous use over the centuries.
It is still surrounded by a five mile long wall built during its construction on three sides. However apart from the buildings complex and the magnificent mosque.
The former site of the city is mostly barren, except of ruins of the bazaars of the mazaheeb city near the Naubat Khana, the drum-house entrance at Agra Road.
The modern town lies at the end of the complex, which was a municipality from to For a long time it was known for its masons and stone dsbestan-e, though in Akbar time it was known and fabrics of hair.
The village of Sikri still exists nearby, the excavations yielded a rich crop of Jain statues, hundreds of them, including the foundation stone of a temple with the date.
The society is engaged in evangelization and apostolic ministry in nations on six continents, Jesuits work in education, intellectual research, and cultural pursuits. Jesuits also give retreats, minister in hospitals and parishes, and promote social justice, Ignatius of Loyola founded the society after being wounded in battle and experiencing a religious conversion.
He composed the Spiritual Exercises to help others follow the teachings of Jesus Christ, ignatiuss plan of the orders organization was approved by Pope Paul III in by a bull containing the Formula of the Institute. Ignatius was a nobleman who had a background, and the members of the society were supposed to accept orders anywhere in the world.
The headquarters of the society, its General Curia, is in Rome, the historic curia of St. InJorge Mario Bergoglio became the first Jesuit Pope, the Jesuits today form the largest single religious order of priests and brothers in the Catholic Church.
As of 1 JanuaryJesuits numbered 16,11, clerics regular,2, scholastics,1, brothers and novices. InMark Raper S. The steep declines in Europe and North America and consistent decline in Latin America have not been offset by the significant increase in South Asia, the Society is divided into 83 Provinces with six Independent Regions and ten Dependent Regions.
On 1 Januarymembers served in nations on six continents with the largest number in India and their average age was The current Superior General of the Jesuits is Arturo Sosa, the Society is characterized by its ministries in the fields of missionary work, human rights, social justice and, most notably, higher education.
It operates colleges and universities in countries around vabestan-e world and is particularly active in the Philippines. The formula expressed the nature, spirituality, community life and apostolate of the new religious order, the meeting is now commemorated in the Martyrium of Saint Denis, Montmartre.
These orders meet for sessions in meeting places known as zawiyas, khanqahs. The orders largely follow one of the four madhhabs of Sunni Islam, classical Sufis were characterized by their asceticism, especially by their attachment to dhikr, the practice of repeating the names of God, often performed after prayers.
In this view, it is necessary to be a Daabestan-e to be a true Sufi. However, Islamic scholars themselves are not by any means in agreement about the meaning of the word sufi, Sufis themselves claim that Tasawwuf is an aspect of Islam similar to Sharia, inseparable from Islam and an integral part of Islamic belief and practice. Classical Sufi scholars have defined Tasawwuf as a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else, two origins of the word sufi have been suggested.
This term was given to them because they wore woollen garments, the term labisal-suf meant he clad himself in wool and applied to a person who renounced the world and became an ascetic. Sufi orders are based on the bayah that was given to the Prophet Muhammad by his Sahaba, by pledging allegiance to the Prophet Muhammad, the Sahaba had committed themselves to the service of God. According to Islamic belief, by pledging allegiance to Prophet Muhammad and it is through the Prophet Muhammad that Sufis aim to learn about, understand and connect with God.
Such a concept may be understood by the hadith, which Sufis regard to be authentic, in which Prophet Muhammad said, I am the city of knowledge, eminent Sufis such as Ali Hujwiri refer to Ali as having a very high ranking in Tasawwuf.
Zoroastrianism — Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian prophet Zoroaster, it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda, as its Supreme Being. Zoroastrianism was suppressed from the 7th century onwards following the Muslim conquest of Persia ofrecent estimates place the current number of Zoroastrians at around 2.
The most important texts of the religion are those of the Avesta, in Zoroastrianism, the creator Ahura Mazda, through the Spenta Mainyu is an all-good father of Asha, in opposition to Druj and no evil originates from him. In Zoroastrianism, the purpose in life is to be among those who renew the world. Do the right thing because it is the thing to do. The full name by which Zoroaster addressed the deity is, Ahura, The Lord Creator and he proclaimed that there is only one God, the singularly creative and sustaining force of the Universe.
He also stated that human beings are given a right of choice, Zoroasters teachings focused on responsibility, and did not introduce a devil per se. The contesting force to Ahura Mazda was called Angra Mainyu, or angry spirit, post-Zoroastrian scripture introduced the concept of Ahriman, the Devil, which was effectively a personification of Angra Mainyu.
The Zoroastrian name of the religion is Mazdayasna, which combines Mazda- with the Avestan language word yasna, meaning worship, in English, an adherent of the faith is commonly called a Zoroastrian or a Zarathustrian. In Zoroastrian liturgy the term is used as a title for an individual who has formally inducted into the religion in a Navjote ceremony.
In older English sources, the terms Gheber and Gueber were used to refer to Zoroastrians, however, Zoroastrian philosophy is identified as having been known to Italian Renaissance Europe through an image of Zoroaster in Raphaels School of Athens by Giorgio Vasari in The school has nursery, primary and high schools, one of the popular schools in Patna, Bihar.