jest przedmiotem analiz w ramach badań nad inteligencją emocjonalną, Test złożony jest z 14 opisów sytuacji, a dla każdej z nich badany. Lifestyle – Twoja inteligencja emocjonalna + TEST. katarzynapluska, kompetencjemiekkie · test/. The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, the Test of Emotional Intelligence (Test Inteligencji Emocjonalnej, TIE).

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Conceived tfst designed the experiments: The Test of Emotional Intelligence TIE is a new ability scale based on a theoretical model that defines emotional intelligence as a set of skills responsible for the processing of emotion-relevant information.

Participants are provided with descriptions of emotional problems, and asked to indicate which emotion is most probable in a given situation, or to suggest the most appropriate action.

Scoring is based on the judgments of experts: The validation study showed that the TIE is a reliable and valid test, suitable for both scientific research and individual assessment.

Its internal consistency measures were as high as. The concept of emotional intelligence EI entered psychological vocabulary more than 20 years ago [1] and quickly earned a high rank of popularity among researchers and practitioners. Because scientists assumed that this set of abilities explain important life outcomes [2] — [5]they immediately began inventing various psychometric tools suitable for the measurement of EI as an individual trait.

With time, the domain split in two assessment tedt. The first relies on self-report questionnaires, and the assumption that people know how well they understand and deal with emotions.

The second assessment strategy uses ability tests based on performance criteria. Although the tests seem much more objective and informative than questionnaires, they require more time and effort, both in the process of their construction and during administration.

Another difficulty teet the ability tests of EI pertains to the scoring criteria. The aim of this paper is to introduce a new instrument for assessing emotional intelligence, labeled the Test of Emotional Intelligence Test Inteligencji EmocjonalnejTIE.

Tset test is based on the theory developed by Peter Salovey emocjonalnw John Mayer [1][2][7]. According to this theory, EI involves a set of cognitive abilities used for processing emotionally relevant information. The second dimension, labeled Using Emotions to Facilitate Thinking, pertains to the assimilation of emotions with thinking and problem solving.

The third ability Understanding Emotions consists of proper understanding of emotions, including the comprehension of triggering factors, phases of the emotional process, and proper sequencing of emotional states. A number of authors argue that EI is important for social functioning and can predict educational achievement or job performance beyond intellectual ability and personality factors [3][9] — [13].

To explore these relationships, researchers and practitioners need psychometrically sound and conceptually comprehensive measures of Inteligenfja.

Although numerous methods of measurement have already been created [14] — [18]each of the existing tools has some disadvantages. The shortcomings of these measures are different; for some tests it is their length, for others — their insufficient reliability, or the additional equipment needed. Seeing that a perfect measure of EI emocjknalna not been created so far, we believe that developing new tools is worthwhile, or even emocionalna.

Both for research and diagnostic purposes, the collection of available tests should be systematically enriched and restored. Since culture can shape the experience and expression of emotions [21]alternative measurement instruments should be developed and validated within different cultural groups.

Consequently, our aim was to develop a valid and reliable instrument tapping multidimensional construct of EI, based on narratives and experiences from an adequate cultural context. Staying within scientific bounds in the use of such terms as emotion and intelligence we opt for the ability-based approach and assume that maximum performance tests are the best tools for assessing EI.

Hence, we created a performance-based scale covering the whole set of emotional abilities, which is brief and easy to administer in individual and group settings.

Three assumptions have been made during the construction process of the TIE. First, we wanted to measure the actual abilities of people rather than their own opinions about themselves. The majority of people think that their own EI level is higher than the average [9]therefore performance tests seem much more objective and valid than self-report questionnaires.


Social and emotional problems are usually too complex and ambiguous to justify such an approach. Assuming that EI is an ability, or a set of abilities, rather than a personality trait or preference [22] — [24]the most frequent test responses must be regarded as less appropriate than ones that are infrequent but produced by highly emotionally intelligent persons. The aim of our empirical investigations was threefold.

First, we intended to provide a detailed, in-depth look into the factorial structure of EI as measured with the TIE. In addition to the factor analyses, we planned to provide empirical data on TIE reliability and validity.

TIE – Test Inteligencji Emocjonalnej

Because ability tests of EI usually reveal systematic gender and age differences we also analyzed such group differences. Since the TIE is an ability measure of EI, in all cases we expected the results usually obtained for inteligencj methods.

Below, we present the hypotheses in tesst. Experiential perceiving and using emotions and Strategic understanding and managing emotions. Additionally, based on initial theoretical analyses and preliminary CFAs conducted for the TIE [25]we propose and test an alternative area division with the abilities of perceiving inteligrncja understanding emotions constituting the alternative Experiential area, and the abilities of using and managing tesy the new Strategic area.

More recent analyses of the MSCEIT which remains our main standard of comparison, emockonalna to its reputation, popularity, and being the only instrument fully reflecting the ability model of EI showed that alternative factorial solutions could be more adequate.

Therefore, we added a nested modeling procedure endorsed by Palmer and colleagues [26]. This approach does not simply assume that some higher-order factors emerge from the lower-level sets of abilities. Summing up, we decided to test four oblique-factor models: If emotional intelligence indeed represents a kind of intelligence, tests of general mental ability should correlate with tests of EI; however, such correlation should not be very strong in order to exclude the possibility that both domains are impossible to discriminate [7].

Along with this assumption, numerous previous studies have demonstrated that EI, as measured by the ability tests, correlates at a intelitencja modest level from. Correlations with fluid intelligence are smaller but still significant [12][31][32].

Twoja inteligencja emocjonalna + TEST

We predict analogical results inteligecnja the TIE. The results concerning relationships between emotional intelligence and personality are ambiguous, mostly due to the fact that different EI measurement strategies produce different results.

Conceptualizing emotional intelligence as a trait and assessing it with self-reports leads to considerable overlap between Tesy and the Big Five traits [33] — [35]. Not surprisingly, self-judgments of a trait described as a constellation of emotional self-perceptions [36] involving adaptability, assertiveness, social competence, and inteligsncja management [37] highly correlates with personality dimensions.

Self-judgment scales assess variables relevant to motivation, social skills, and other areas of personality [12]and thus, overlap with the Big Five sometimes as much as the different scales of the Big Five overlap with each other [22].

However, if we define EI as an ability, not a preference or inclination, we should not expect significant relationships with major personality dimensions. Whether or not people are sociable or assertive, they might be intelligent about emotions.

Along with that claim, many empirical studies [9][12][28][30] show that ability-based EI shares only a small fraction of common variance with personality, if at all. In line with these results, we predict that among five personality dimensions, the TIE would only have a modest relation to Agreeableness and Openness [38]. Empirical research systematically confirms that self-reported scales do not predict ability assessments of EI well.

Correlations between measures of trait EI and ability EI are invariably low [39] showing that the former belong to the realm of personality, whereas the latter pertain to the domain of cognitive ability.

In direct tests, self-judgment-based responses are not highly correlated with measured abilities of perceiving, using, understanding, and managing emotions. Therefore, we expect significant albeit weak correlations of self-reported EI with the results of the TIE. The first studies using the TIE show significant relationships between its results and the ability measure of emotional perception. Wojciechowski and colleagues [43] found that all four TIE branch scores were significantly correlated with the results of a computer test measuring individual effectiveness in recognizing facial expressions The Face Decoding Test, FDT.

We expect similar results in this study. Although studies based on self-reports bring disparate findings concerning gender differences in EI [11][14], inteoigencja performance indicators of EI are used, clear and repetitive results are observable: We expect similar gender differences with females scoring higher in the present study.


According to the theory, EI should increase with age due to the accumulation of knowledge about emotion and its social context [46]. Nevertheless, studies designed to confirm this effect bring mixed results.

Some researchers report significantly better scores on all four EI branches for older adults [7]some investigators [46] show older adults outperform tezt participants on three out of four EI dimensions no difference in perceiving emotionswhile others — find no significant association between age and ability EI [47][48] or even negative correlation between age and emotional perception [26][49].

Most recently [50] it has been found that older people have lower scores than younger people for total EI and for perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age is not associated with managing emotions.

Visibly, according to some studies, EI grows with time, but in agreement with the others it declines with age as any other cognitive ability. Paradoxically, it might not be a contradiction. Probably, from childhood, through adolescence, until middle and old age people develop emotional abilities and gather the experiences building their EI.

Inevitable age-related cognitive decline happens only in very old age and does not equally affect all aspects of EI. It seems that older people have difficulty perceiving emotions [51]but may outperform younger people in managing emotions. Therefore, we expect small albeit significant age related gains in each EI branch until middle age, and a small decline for the subscales of perceiving, using and understanding emotions but not managing for the oldest participants.

Thus, for the three branches a quadratic relationship with age is hypothesized, whereas for the fourth one we anticipate a systematic linear growth across the lifespan. The study was approved by the ethics committee of the Institute of Psychology, the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. Participants provided written informed consent.

In the case of participants under 18, written informed consent was obtained both from the participant and the guardian. We analyzed data from people, combining about 30 studies conducted by our team and collaborators with broad experience in empirical research.

Participants volunteered for studies with either no or little compensation course credits or money. The mean age of the sample was The structure of education in the sample of employees was as follows: Emotional intelligence was measured with the TIE. The test consists of four subtests representing consecutively PerceptionUnderstandingFacilitationand Management of emotions four labels of TIE subscales are slightly different from the labels of MSCEIT, but they pertain to the same theoretical model.

Each subtest is defined by six item parcels. An item parcel consists of one problem situation in which people perceive, experience, manifest or use emotions, followed by three alternative responses. This is an example of such item parcel:.

Sophie hits the table with a fist. She frowns, her face is glowing, and her teeth are clenched. The three answers are related to the same emotional problem, however, each of them asks about the accuracy of a different strategy or perception, and therefore they can be treated as separate items.

The whole test consists of two parts with different instructions. In the first part, referring to Perception and Understandingparticipants are asked to reflect on feelings and thoughts of persons who were involved in the described situations. In the second part, referring to Facilitation and Managementtest-takers are asked to indicate the most advisable action that a protagonist should implement in order to solve the problem. The points are summed up separately for all branches and for the whole test.

inteligecja Individuals are instructed to give their level of agreement to 33 statements describing different aspects of emotional life e. The original English version adapted to Polish [52] in this research reached an internal consistency of.

The ability of perceiving emotions in nonverbal signals was measured with the SIE-T, an instrument tapping the ability to recognize emotions in facial expressions [53].