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The phenomenon of migration can influence vulnerability among family members, including teenagers who assume roles they are not ready to perform. The aim of this paper is to identify behavioral problems in teenage children of migrants and non-migrants from Xalapa, Mexico. The CBCL years and the questionnaire on factors related to behavioral problems and migration were administered to a representative sample of 2 high school students ages 13 to 17 years.
The results show that this is an at-risk population that is lkbro vulnerable since over 40 percent of adolescents have some sort of problem such as aggression, anxiety or introversion.
The types of problems identified and the relationships found concerning demographic variables and migration are discussed. Nowadays, economic, social, political and environmental changes impact individuals and society in general, meaning that human beings implement mechanisms to adapt to new conditions. Sarasln is by no means easy, since in some cases, it directly affects the decision-making process to achieve their goals, one of which is to improve their living conditions.
Until the mid th century, since the states with the highest migration rates were those adjacent to the United States, Veracruz was not considered a state with a migrant tradition, especially because in the early to mid th century, it was a state lubro required labor from other states to work in its agriculture, industry and oil. Over time, it has gradually come to be considered one of the main states with high emigration rates, due, among other things, to the economic crisis, particularly since the recession.
The coffee crisis psicipatologia also triggered migration in the state of Veracruz mestries, ; Quesnel, and Del Rey, Psicopatoologia, it psicopatolpgia has other implications: Psycho-emotional sarasoj are altered when a family member emigrates to another state in Mexico or outside the country, affecting relations between family members and friends. According to reports from previous studies on psicoopatologia issues, the mental health of those who stay behind and those who leave may be affected Chaney, The migratory phenomenon may influence the vulnerability zarason family members.
Teenagers, whether only children or with younger siblings, together with parents, assume different roles within the family psicopwtologia. Thus, if either or both parents migrate, other members of the nuclear family assume roles they are usually not qualified to perform, resulting in frustration, anger and depression, impaired school performance or even dropping out. Adolescents may psicopatolofia attracted to groups of sarwson with whom they share ways of thinking, feelings and attitudes, with unhealthy forms of expression such as vandalism, drug use, and other self-destructive behaviors Mummert, The nuclear family is considered a “Primary group formed by parent s and child ren and possibly other relatives linked by multiple, varied bonds who support and help each other on a reciprocal basis and perform several functions for their mutual benefit and that of society” Ribeiro, During adolescence, deviations may occur, or even psychological disorders that must be treated promptly.
Hence the interest in identifying behavioral problems in high school students as well as the factors that may be associated with these problems. The Psychosocial Impact on the Migrant’s Family. Several studies have reported gender differences in terms of individual disorders, the rate of problems being considerably higher in male than female teenagers Wolff, and Ollendick, Although statistics show that behavioral and mental problems are similar between men and women, there are clear differences by sex psicopatologgia age in regard to depression who,which is more common in women, whereas addictive substance abuse and antisocial personality problems are more common in men.
Sex differences in depression levels emerge during adolescence Wade, Cairney, and Pevalin, When a relative emigrates, family dynamics are negatively altered, impacting the mental health of some of its members.
This is exemplified in a study conducted in two communities in Oaxaca, where it was found that families with a migrant relative had a greater incidence of psychological disorders such as anxiety, depression, domestic violence and alcoholism. The sample consisted of teenage children of migrants living in rural communities in that state.
To this end, a test was administered to identify the psychological characteristics of depression. The results showed that there is no direct correlation between depression symptoms and being the child of a migrant.
Instead, teenagers displayed these symptoms when one or both parents worked outside the home. The authors add that in these communities the elements that contributes to the generation of depressive symptoms in the migrants’ young children are a result of the conditions of the rural contexts in which families are left.
In addition to studying, young children work to support their families; the father is absent due to international migration, and the mother’s role is changing. It is important to note that anxiety and depression are among the behaviors classified by Achenbach as internal behavior see table 1. Moreover, Jones et al. This is understandable since when the mother stays behind, she assumes responsibility for the entire family. For some mothers, being solely responsible for the burden of parenting coupled with the husband’s insecurity can lead to certain emotional disorders such as depression.
Psicopatología: psicología anormal : el problema de la conducta inadaptada
Sarason, and Sarason found that for women, the likelihood of depression is twice as high as it is for men, since they tend to offer more emotional and material support, which produces equal or greater stress. The guidelines governing the type of interaction between members of a family group constitute a growing source of interest for those engaged in the study of the family, by virtue of their implications for the lifetime of its members, in addition to the fact that the family serves as a mediator in various social processes, such as migration in this case.
The fact that many families disintegrate is a consequence of migration. This leads to the creation of a new form of fragmented family, called “transnational family” by Falicovwhich has advantages and disadvantages for both those that leave and the rest of the family, which remains in the country. They may display symptoms that may be related to the departure of this relative since their everyday lives are altered. In this respect, the author adds that the Pew Hispanic Center reports that 42 percent of women who migrate are aged between 30 and 44 and 28 percent are aged between 18 and 29 with 30 percent belonging to other age groups.
When wives are left behind, they often experience various fears about their partners, which begins with their departure, such as: In this case, they are the ones who deal with any problems that occur at home, while coping with the economic situation in the first few months before the first remittances arrive Salgado, and Maldonado, ; Salgado, As one can see, when one parent migrates, other members of the nuclear family assume roles they are not usually qualified to perform.
In the event that both parents leave, children may be looked after by other family members or neighbors, creating a feeling of abandonment, frustration, anger, depression in children and adolescents, reflected in a decline in school performance or dropping out, or feeling attracted by peer groups with whom they share ways of thinking, feeling, attitudes and unhealthy forms of expression such as vandalism, drugs, and other self-destructive behaviors as noted by Mummert On his return, the spouse creates emotional tension in the family, since during his absence, family members’ roles were adjusted.
The mother, who is usually distressed, tries to restore the father to the same role he had before he emigrated and serves as a mediator between him and the children. This situation is rejected by the teenagers since they are no longer willing for the father to take control of their lives.
Another source of distress for wives is that they may become pregnant only to be abandoned again Rouse, The feeling of abandonment experienced by migrants’ children and its respective consequences, exacts a high emotional toll in exchange for the family’s economic well-being since maternal or paternal figures cannot be replaced by other relatives or guardians.
This situation is responsible for another of the costs of migration: Not having family models or the transmission of their cultural values coupled with the absence of guidance and support for healthy psychosocial development, as noted by Pinazo, and Ferrercreates inadequate socialization that alters social networks and the learning of socialization.
The new cognitive-behavioral patterns impact family members who experience changes in the way they dress, which is uncommon in rural Mexico or use drugs Pinazo, and Ferrer, The next session refers specifically to family relationships as well as the impact of parental migration on the family’s mental health. From the time of the formation of the couple, the family undergoes a series of processes that can strengthen or destroy it, which include various factors that affect the family group and each of its members: Depending on its composition, the family is either called nuclear, with parents and children, or extended, with parents, children and other relatives.
In the past, the coexistence of both types of families was common. Nowadays, parents decide to live alone with their children in order to be responsible for raising them. Although this is ideal, in many households where migration occurs, children, or children and their mothers, may make the decision to cohabit with the extended family in order to help them with their children as regards responsibilities, decision-making and financial aspects.
Another key factor in families’ lives concerns the rules of coexistence. These constitute their inner strength, which enables them to indicate the path to be taken to achieve the harmonious development of the family as a group and of each of its members.
Some of these rules are for general observance and others are private. However, it is important that they all emanate from the family nucleus, mainly from the parents who convey them to those involved, regardless of age. There are also implicit rules particularly related to the transmission of culture and social norms that should be explained to prevent misunderstandings and achieve the personal commitment of each member of the group. This situation may or may not be adversely affected by the absence of one or both parents.
The psychosocial functions performed by a family should not be overlooked; Macias It should be noted that values are learned through experience, particularly in the family of origin. It is not enough to teach them or talk about them; they must be lived on a daily basis and, as some authors such as Yarce In addition to this, there are certain situations faced by today’s families: The status of addictive substance use in Mexico is similar to that in the rest of the world and the city of Xalapa is no different, as shown by the data reported by Villatoro, and Medina-Mora For many, onset occurs before the legal age for purchasing products such as tobacco and alcohol, and it has been recognized that increased consumption occurs among students ages 16 or older, except for those who use inhalants, whose consumption is common among those under In the first half ofalcohol continued to be the most commonly consumed substance This preference was maintained in all the six-month periods investigated, both for ever use and for consumption in the past 30 days.
According to Pinazo, and Ferrer Regarding the first, they mention drug use by models such as parents ; seeking new sensations; low religiosity; low self-acceptance; poor academic performance and unawareness of the harmful consequences of drug abuse.
Regarding the family level, they mention: Likewise, these authors note that social and environmental variables may be predictors of drug use, noting that family breakdown can lead to inadequate socialization by altering the variables related to social learning.
Schools have been recognized as one of the key micro-social areas due to the considerable number of hours teenagers spend in them every day. Attention should be paid to aspects of students’ performance and development that may be indicative of certain problematic situations, such as: Moradillo argues that school becomes a powerful development factor for teenagers when interpersonal relations between teachers and pupils are good, with an active, participatory style of work and clear regulations involving democratic values and discipline.
A quantitative, cross-cutting method was used to analyze issues with a psychosocial impact on the migrant’s family, the behavioral and social problems of the teenage children of migrants and non-migrants; the impact on the family and family relationships, and their impact on the school environment. The data were subjected to a chi square X 2 statistical test and univariate and bivariate analysis. The total population of high schools in Xalapa consisted of 54 schools divided into four categories: In order to obtain a significant statistical sample, a random method was used with the following formula: The sample consisted of 2 teenagers from the city of Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, whose ages ranged between 12 and 17, belonging to different geographical areas in the city.
The result was a sample of 36 high schools with a reliability of 95 percent, distributed as follows: After obtaining the sample of schools, the sample of students was obtained by using the same formula, with a result of 2 of the 15 students enrolled. On the basis of these results, the questionnaires were proportionally distributed by schools and by shift morning and evening where appropriate.
Sarason, I. G., & Sarason, B. R. (). Psicología Anormal: by Magally Vázquez on Prezi
The student sample was distributed as follows: As for age, Two instruments were used for the data collection: Questionnaire on the behavior of children ages 11 to 18 years, drawn up by Thomas Achenbach The checklist for child behavior used in this research is a item questionnaire to be answered by the young people themselves.
It is designed to identify syndromes of problems that tend to occur together. The names of the seven syndromes are considered brief descriptions psicopatloogia the items comprising them rather than diagnostic labels.
Table 1 shows the syndromes and their respective behaviors. Questionnaire on factors related to behavior problems and migration. This instrument consists of an introduction-explanation to place the person answering the survey.